Rios Montt 1983 The Massacres

An early convert was General Efrain Rios Montt, who became president after a military coup in March 1982. (1) Hap Brooks, a preacher from Florida, hailed the coup as “the greatest miracle of the twentieth century, formed in heaven before it was formed on earth. “(5) Efrain Rios Montt and his supporters expected to turn Verbo Churches into a new political movement. Rios Montt announced that his movement would “moralize national life from the top down. “(13) According to Deborah Huntington, a researcher on the Religious Right, during the Rios Montt counterinsurgency campaign “Gospel Outreach and the Verbo Ministries were valuable allies of the military. Verbo members became the preferred liaison between the army and the local community, leading civil defense patrols and weeding out guerrilla sympathizers. “(5) “The experience of a born-again Christian shepherding an entire nation reinforced the notion that they could seize their vision of the Kingdom of God on earth. “(5) According to sociologist David Stoll, Verbo Ministries organized FUNDAPI together with the Behrhorst Clinic, and Wycliffe Bible Translators in 1982. (13) FUNDAPI’s purposes were to provide food, medicine, clothing, shelter and tools to Indian refugees and “restrain the army from crimes” which “FUNDAPI staffers knew the army was still committing. “(13) However, in many cases, FUNDAPI declared that assassinations had been perpetrated by guerrillas “who wanted to discredit the new president. “(13) FUNDAPI expended a lot of time and energy on denying the army’s massacres. (13)

According to the Latin American Institute of Transnational Studies, “Within the first nine months of Rios Montt’s administration, 12 evangelical pastors were assassinated; 69 were kidnapped; 45 disappeared; 15 were jailed; 11 foreign missionaries were expelled; 88 evangelical temples were destroyed; and 50 more were occupied by the Army. “(7) By 1986, Verbo Ministries reported 250 congregations. (15) Verbo Ministries also runs a Leadership Training School with over 1000 members directed by Rios Montt himself. (7)

A recent article in Now, a progressive Canadian monthlymagazine, reported that El Verbo has 250 congregations in Guatemala. (19)


Dominionism in Guatemala

by David Choiniere – Guatemala / Guatemala-City site: Dominionismo en todas sus formas 03/01/2014

Dominionism is a theology that says the church is called to set up God’s rule here in earth. They believe they have been called by God to take over governments and establish God’s rule through a theocracy. In the USA dominion theology is represented by people like Peter Wagner, IHOP, Bethel Church, the Kansas City prophets, and Rod Parsley. Many movements teach dominion theology without using the term. In fact, many reject the term dominion theology and claim that the term does not apply to them. That does not mean they do not teach dominionism. To compound things there are many variations and teachings including Latter Rain, Manifest Sons of God, Kingdom Theology, The Seven Mountains of God, Joel’s Army, the Elijah List, and the Shepherding movement. Some of these churches may eschew political involvement as well.

Dominionist churches also exist around the world and  in Spanish the churches that teach dominionism are often called neo-pentecostal to distuinquish themselves from the older pentecostal movement. These neo-pentecostals have created controversy with their prosperity doctrines which most other churches reject. They are often accused of adding to the word of God with their constant new ‘revelations’.

Guatemala is one of the countries in the world most affected by Dominionism. Probably dominion theology first came to Guatemala through some Argentinian preachers, Claudio Feidzón and Carlos Annacondia. An earlier influence was Juan Carlos Ortiz of Argentina too. Ortiz spent time recently preaching at the Crystal Cathedral and Annacondia also played a role in the Toronto Blessing as he went there and exposed them to the doctrine.

Rios Montt might be considered the first case of dominionism applied literally in a country. He was rabidly anticommunist and the country was being besieged by guerrillas desiring to apply Marxist-Leninism to a country well known for it’s concentration of wealth where a handful of wealthy families controlled most of the country’s economy and most of the population was either poor or extremely poor. When Rios Montt was president his regime was accused of  committing massacres. He was accused ordering massacres and to this day denies any involvement in them. To be fair he did not start the conflict but his role in it cannot be easily dismissed. He was a lay pastor with the Church of the Word (El Verbo). He was converted to the evangelical faith as an adult. He saw his mission as de facto president as messianic, one in which he was called to crush the Marxist guerrilla movement that had so divided the country. He ordered the crushing of the guerrilla movement at all costs and was famous for saying that “In order to kill the fish you had to remove its water” lending credence to the idea that he believed that in order to crush the guerrillas it was necessary to kill lots of innocent people as they were aiding the guerrillas. That was how the guerrillas were to be defeated. He applied a carrot and stick policy that gave food to poor people in order to wean them from their support to the guerrilla combined with severe punishment to anyone suspected of aiding and abetting the guerrilla.

Montt was deposed a year and a half later as he aroused too much ire as he spoke harshly against the Catholic faith and dissed the pope on his visit to Guatemala. Rios Montt have friendships with Pat Robertson who met with him shortly after Montt took power as president. Robertson’s Operation Blessing, an organization created to respond to humanitarian crises, was then put into action to try to wean the support of the peasants away from the guerrilla and towards Montt. Many American evangelical missionaries operating in Guatemala refused to denounce the abuses they saw and claimed they were apolitical and did not want to detract from their evangelizing mission. Some were sympathetic to the plight of the poor while others saw religious conversion to the evangelical faith as the  best antidote to the Marxist-Leninist threat.

It bears mentioning that Rios Montt is a very polarizing fiugure these days. He was tried for genocide and was convicted , then that was annulled and a new trial was called for but not started. He has few friends these days. He has lost his voice among most evangelicals.

In 1986 a civilian government was restored to Guatemala and elections were held. Evangelicals were on the rise as they began to impact the country. Soon Evangelicals started getting involved with politics. Serrano Elias became the first evangelical elected to power. He was a member of the Elim church, which long as had dominionist ties. He was a prominient businessman and not expected to place well but surprised everyone by winning the election. He took office in 1992 and in 1993 he suspended the constitution alleging it was the only way to combat widespread corruption. Due to widespread discontent he was removed after two weeks of autocratic rule. He left with 25 million dollars he stole proving that his motives were not exactly innocent. He runs a ranch in Panama where he lives today and breeds thoroughbreds all the while continuing to claim innocence in face of all accusations.

Dominionism in the form of NAR teachings began making a bigger impact in Guatemala with the rise of several megachurches such as El Shaddai, pastored by Harold Caballeros and closely associated with Peter Wagner of the New Apostolic Reformation. He later took on the title of apostle. Another megachurch pastor was Edmundo Madrid who began as a presbyterian pastor, then turned Pentecostal, was ejected from the Presbyterian church and then founded Lluvias de Gracia (Showers of Grace) and who also took on the claim of being an apostle. He has connections to Peter Wagner as well. Another man is Jorge López, a former Baptist pastor who started La Fraternidad preaching a message of prosperity as did Harold Caballeros.

In 2007 Harold Caballeros resigned as pastor of the El Shaddai church to start a new political party called Viva. Many Christians were stunned that the pastor of a major megachurch would resign to run for president. The reaction was mixed at best as many Christians saw politics as dirty and were still licking their would for having voted for Serrano. Christians who were surprised by Caballeros’ candidacy do not understand dominion theology which states that the church is called to take over the government and more.

Caballeros was rejected from campaigning in the 2007 election. He campaigned without prohibition for the 2011 election with mediocre results. After his loss in the 2011 elections he supported the party Patriota candidate for presidency in the runoff and Perex Molina won. After Otto Perez Molina won, Perez Molina, who was a former military officer, chose Caballeros to be minister of foreign affairs. Caballeros is still in politics and is expected to run for presidency in 2015 election. Harold Caballeros had little support in the past elections and there is little reason to believe he will get a lot more next time.

Harold Caballeros also runs a Christian university called San Pablo. It is located on the property of the El Shaddai ministries. He also runs a string of private schools around the country. When campaigning for the presidency he emphasized that he emphasized that he was a businessman and that is partially true as his schools were expensive and made him a millionaire, over and above his high salary as head and founding pastor of the El Shaddai church. Caballeros has also written several books, most dealing with spiritual warfare. He also has contacts with many of the shadowy figures of Guatemala’s dark past.

Another figure in the movement of dominionism is Sergio Enrique who runs the Ebenezer ministries. All these men, besides the main megachurch, run a group of satellite churches around the country and even outside the country. Not all these pastors necessarily preach prosperity.

Previous to these pastors and their prosperity message the evangelicals had attracted mostly the lower classes. Thanks to the prosperity message evangelical churches soon began attracting the middle and upper classes. Many of these persons  increasing felt alienated from  with what they saw as a drift to the left in the Catholic church through the teaching of Liberation Theology. Evangelicals were happy to welcome the wealthier classes and the political connections with right wing politicians.

Another man teaching dominionism is Cash Luna, who founded the church Casa De Dios The church grew quickly to become the largest church in Guatemala. Cash Luna implements a discipleship program that was copied from the one Cesar Castellanos implemented in Colombia. Castellanos built one of the largest churches in the world; Misión Carismática Iternacional.

Under the Colom administration, who was president from 2008 tp 2012, several members of the El Shaddai church were involved with the Colom government. Among them was Erwin Sperisen who was police chief from 2004-2007. He is currently awaiting trial in Switzerland for his role in some extrajudicial killings during a prison cleanup.

I should not forget to mention Sálvador Gándara, who was minister of the Interior under Colom from 2009-2010. He is also under investigation for his rokle in extra-judicial killings but he first started getting involved in scandals when he was accusedof using his government helicopter for personal use. Then he was accused of misappropriating public funds. Still, he claims to be an evangelical Christian. He is under house arrest still.

Approximately 25% of the current congress profess the evangelical faith yet the congress is just as corrupt and inefficient as ever.

Another man professing the evangelical faith and involved in politics is Amílcar Rivera Estévez who was mayor of Mixco, a city bordering on Guatemala city. He served from 2004-2012. He still has political ambitions and is expected to make a run for the presidency in the 2015 elections. He also has been under scrutiny for financial mismanagement.

(published by S.Schad 03/01/2014)

additional articles about dominionism in Guatemala:

The Most Influential Dominionist You’ve Never Heard Of (Daily Kos)

Rios Montt, Yonggi Cho, New Life, and the strange history of dominionist juntas (Daily Kos)

This entry was posted in Stimmen (deutsch), voices (english), voices of Central- & South-America, David Choiniere and tagged dominionism, Guatemala, Rios Montt by S. Schad. Bookmark the permalink.


Please remember to do a site search for other related documents which may not be shown here.
Verbo Villages and the Rios Montt Guatemala Thailand Connection
How to use Churches in association with Governments to weaken villages, displace or kill villagers, take the land and please both corporations and governments. (And keep your visa and good life at the mission)

Extensive Reference On The Verbo Church Movement
The Jesus Movement
Association With Guatemalan Death Squads

Treatment of Catholic Churches

It was in the coercive resettlement program that Israel’s activities in Guatemala intersected most directly with those of the Christian right surrounding the Reagan Administration. This was particularly true during the reign of Rios Montt. Montt was a so-called “born-again Christian,” a member (“elder”) of the Arcata, California based Church of the Word, a branch of Evangelical Gospel Outreach.

In Guatemala, the Christian right was interested in converts by the end of 1982 reactionary Protestants had succeeded in recruiting 22 percent of the population to their theology of blind obedience and anti-communism. They were particularly hostile to Catholicism, especially “Liberation Theology,” which many of the Guatemalan military deemed responsible for the insurgency.

Right-wing Christian organizations seemed to be especially drawn to the harsh social control being exerted on the highland Mayans. During the Rios Montt period, foreign fundamentalists were permitted access to military operational zones, while Catholics were turned away-or attacked. During this period “many Catholic rectories and churches in Quiche [a highland province] [were] turned into Army barracks. In late 1983, the Vatican itself protested the murder of a Franciscan priest in Guatemala and the (exiled) Guatemalan Human Rights Commission (CDHG) charged that in the space of several months 500 catechists had been disappeared. In October the police caught and tortured some religious workers.

Meanwhile, Rios Montt surrounded himself with advisers, both North American and Guatemalan, from his Verbo church, and what appeared to be a loose coalition of right-wing fundamentalist organizations, most notably Pat Robertson’s Christian Broadcasting Network, began an extensive fundraising drive and also started sending volunteers to Ixil Triangle villages under military control. Rios Montt chose Love Lift International, the “relief arm” of Gospel Outreach, Verbo’s parent church, to carry the food and supplies purchased with the money raised. Verbo representatives, along with an older evangelical outfit, the Wycliffe Bible Translators (WBT/SIL, the latter initials for the Summer Institute of Linguistics, an organization whose CIA connections are long and impeccable and which has often been charged with involvement in massacres of indigenous peoples throughout the Americas), arranged with the government “to take charge of all medical work in the Ixil Triangle, and for all education in Indian areas up to the third grade to be taught in Indian languages with WBT/SIL assistance,” through the Behrhorst Clinic. WBT/SIL and the Clinic’s parent, the Behrhorst Foundation, incorporated with Verbo Church into the Foundation for Aid to the Indian People (FUNDAPI), whose stated purpose was to channel international Christian donations to refugees and which coordinated volunteers from U.S. right-wing religious organizations.

GUATEMALA: One of the school’s most infamous graduates is a former President, Gen. Jose Efrain Rios Montt. Rios Montt, a “born again” killer with ties to the authoritarian, Eureka, California-based Gospel Outreach/Verbo Church, presided over the creation of a Guatemalan version of the CIA’s “Phoenix Program.” During “Plan Victoria 82,” and an accessory program, “Fusiles y Frijoles” (“guns and beans”), entire Mayan highland villages were wiped off the map and the survivors of these massacres were herded into “strategic hamlets.” The intellectual origins for Rios Montt’s program was a 1970s counterinsurgency document called “U.S. Program of Pacification and Eradication of Communism.” By July 1982, an estimated 3-10,000 civilians had been murdered. Rios Montt is the current President of the Guatemalan Congress.”>”>

This is from the website, we have concerns that this document will be lost, so we reproduce it here.
… The history of Israel’s relations with Guatemala roughly parallels that of its ties with El Salvador except the Guatemalan military was so unswervingly bloody that Congress never permitted the … Reagan Administration to undo the military aid cutoff implemented during the Carter years. Weaponry for the Guatemalan military is the very least of what Israel has delivered. Israel not only provided the technology necessary for a reign of terror, it helped in the organization and commission of the horrors perpetrated by the Guatemalan military and police. And even beyond that: to ensure that the profitable relationship would continue, Israel and its agents worked actively to maintain Israeli influence in Guatemala.
Throughout the years of untrammeled slaughter that left at least 45,000 dead, and, by early 1983, one million in internal exile – mostly indigenous Mayan Indians, who comprise a majority of Guatemala’s eight million people – and thousands more in exile abroad, Israel stood by the Guatemalan military. Three successive military governments and three brutal and sweeping campaigns against the Mayan population, described by a U.S. diplomat as Guatemala’s “genocide against the Indians,” had the benefit of Israeli techniques and experience, as well as hardware.


Israel began selling Guatemala weapons in 1974 and since then is known to have delivered 17 Arava aircraft. In 1977 at the annual industrial fair, Interfer, Israel’s main attraction was the Arava. “An operative Arava is to be parked outside the IAI pavilion for public inspection, although its silhouette in flight is a common sight over the capital and countryside.”‘ Referring to the Aravas, Benedicto Lucas Garcia, chief of staff during the rule of his brother Romeo Lucas Garcia (1978-1982) said, “Israel helped us in regard to planes and transportation-which we desperately needed because we’ve had problems in transferring ground forces from one place to another. By 1982, at least nine of the Aravas had been mounted with gun pods. Among the other weapons sold by Israel were 10 RBY armored personnel carriers, three Dabur class patrol boats armed with Gabriel missiles, light cannons, machine guns and at least 15,000 Galil assault rifles. The Galil became Guatemala’s standard rifle and Uzis were widely seen as well. According to Victor Perera, “Uzis and the larger Galil assault rifles used by Guatemala’s special counterinsurgency forces accounted for at least half of the estimated 45,000 Guatemalan Indians killed by the military since 1978”


When the Reagan Administration took office it was determined to do everything it could for Guatemala. It had promised as much during the election campaign. Never had Ronald Reagan seen a rightist dictatorship he didn’t like; during his 1980 campaign he met with a representative of the right-wing business lobby Los Amigos del Pais, and, referring to the Carter Administration’s aid cutoff, told him, “Don’t give up. Stay there and fight. I’ll help you as soon as I get in.” The Guatemalan far-right apparently helped Reagan get in. Guatemalan business leaders reportedly pumped large illegal contributions into the Reagan campaign coffers. Their tentacles reached right into the core of the new administration through the lobbying activities of the Hannaford-Deaver law firm of White House troika member Michael Deaver. Within three days of the Republican victory on 7 November 1980, Hannaford-Deaver were busy arranging a Capitol Hill briefing for Amigos del Pais.

Congress, however, did not change its attitude about Guatemala, and as late as 1985 remained adamant about denying it military aid. In 1981, Reagan’s Secretary of State Alexander Haig “urged Israel to help Guatemala.” In July 1985 Israel helped the administration move a shipment of 40 assault rifles with advanced night sights and 1,000 grenade launchers from Israel to Guatemala on a KLM (Royal Dutch Airlines) flight.

In late 1983, the Guerrilla Army of the Poor (EGP) issued a communiqué saying that the previous May a munitions factory producing bullets for Galil rifles and Uzi submachine guns had begun operation in Alta Verapaz. Subsequently the director of Army Public Relations confirmed that the military was producing Galil rifle parts, had begun armor plating its vehicles at the factory, and that the facility would soon be capable of building grenade launchers. The following year the factory began manufacturing entire Galil rifles under license from Israel.Israeli advisers set up the factory and then trained the Guatemalans to run it, said Gen. Benedicto Lucas Garcia, who had headed the army at the time. “The factory is now being run by Guatemalans,” he added. There are hopes in Guatemala that 30 percent of the plant’s output can be sold to Honduras and El Salvador.

The EGP said in 1983 that there were 300 Israeli advisers in Guatemala, working “in the security structures and in the army.” Other reports were less specific as to numbers, but suggested that these Israeli advisers, “some official, others private,” performed a variety of functions. Israelis “helped Guatemalan internal security agents hunt underground rebel groups.” Gen. Lucas said Israeli advisers had come to teach the use of Israeli equipment purchased by Guatemala. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s the Guatemalan police agencies had had extensive U.S. training in “riot control training and related phases of coping with civil disturbances in a humane and effective manner,” a euphemism for the terror campaigns in which these forces participated that in 1967-1968 took 7,000 lives while ostensibly fighting a guerrilla force that never numbered more than 450. When Congress forbade U.S. forces to train the internal police forces of other countries-passed in 1974, this law was supplanted in 1985 by legislation that put the U.S. back in the police-guidance business – the Israelis stepped in and “set up their intelligence network, tried and tested on the West Bank and Gaza.”

Israeli noncommissioned officers were also said to have been hired by big landowners to train their private security details. (Under Marcos, Israel did the same in the Philippines. These private squads, together with “off-duty military officers formed the fearsome ‘death squads’ which later spread to neighboring El Salvador, where they have been responsible for an estimated 20,000-30,000 murders of left-wing dissidents.” Not only did the Israelis share their experiences and their tactics, they bestowed upon Guatemala the technology needed by a modern police state. During the period Guatemala was under U.S. tutelage, the insurgency spread from the urban bourgeoisie to the indigenous population in the rural highlands; with Israeli guidance the military succeeded in suppressing … the drive for land and political liberation. The Guatemalan military is very conscious of that achievement, even proud of it. Some officers argue that with the help of the U.S. they could not have quelled the insurgency, as Congress would not have tolerated their ruthless tactics.

In 1979, the Guatemalan interior minister paid a “secret and confidential” visit to Israel, where he met with the manufacturers of “sophisticated police equipment.” In March of the following year Interior Minister Donaldo Alvarez Ruiz was in Israel to conclude an agreement for police training. Following the overthrow of Lucas Garcia, the home of Interior Minister Alvarez was raided, “uncovering underground jail cells, stolen vehicles…[and] scores of gold graduation rings, wrenched from the fingers of police torture victims.” Israeli advisers have worked with the feared G-2 police intelligence unit. overseen by the army general staff, the G-2 is the intelligence agency – sections charged with “the elimination of individuals” are stationed at every army base – which has been largely responsible for the death squad killings over the last decade. The present civilian government has dissolved the DIT, a civilian organization subordinate to G-2, but not G-2 itself.

In 1981, the Army’s School of Transmissions and Electronics, a school designed and financed by the Israeli company Tadiran to teach such subjects as encoding, radio jamming and monitoring, and the use of Israeli equipment was opened in Guatemala City. According to the colonel directing the school, everything in it came from Israel: the “teaching methods, the teaching teams, the technical instruments, books, and even the custom furniture…designed and built by the Israeli company DEGEM Systems.”

At the opening ceremony the Israeli ambassador was thanked by Chief of Staff Gen. Benedicto Lucas Garcia for “the advice and transfer of electronic technology” which, Lucas said, had brought Guatemala up to date. Calling Guatemala “one of our best friends” the ambassador promised that further technology transfers were in the works.

Perhaps the most sinister of all the equipment supplied by Israel to Guatemala were two computers. One was in an old military academy and became, as Benedicto Lucas called it, “the nerve center of the armed forces, which deals with the movements of units in the field and so on.” The other computer was located in an annex of the National Palace. The G-2 have a control center there, and, since the days of Romeo Lucas Garcia, meetings have been held in that annex to select assassination victims. According to a senior Guatemalan army official, the complex contains “an archive and computer file on journalists, students, leaders, people of the left, politicians, and so on. ” This material is combined with current intelligence reports and mulled over during weekly sessions that have included, in their respective times, both Romeo Lucas and Oscar Mejia Victores.

The bureaucratic procedures for approving the killing of a dissident are well-established. “A local military commander has someone they think is a problem,” the officer explains. “So they speak with G-2, and G-2 consults its own archives and information from its agents and the police and, if all coincide, it passes along a direct proposition to the minister of defense. They say, ‘We have analyzed the case of such and such a person in depth and this person is responsible for the following acts and we recommend that we execute them.”


Control of the Rural Population

The aspect of Israeli cooperation with Guatemala with the most serious implications is the role played by Israeli personnel in the universally condemned rural “pacification” program. Extreme maldistribution of land-exacerbated by encroachment on indigenous land-was a major cause of the present rebellion. After trying several different approaches, the military, under Rios Montt, embarked on a resolution of the problem, substituting forced relocation and suppression for equitable land distribution.

In 1982 Israeli military advisers helped develop and carry out ‘Plan Victoria’ the devastating scorched earth campaign which Rios Montt .unleashed on the highland population. In June 1983, the Guatemalan embassy in Washington confirmed that “personnel sent by the Israeli government were participating in the repopulation and readjustment programs for those displaced.” Rios Montt himself told the Washington Times that the Israeli government was giving his administration help with the counterinsurgency plan called “Techo, tortilla y trabajo” (shelter, food and work). The “three T’s” followed an earlier Rios program called Fusiles y Fridoles, or beans and bullets, where wholesale slaughter was combined with the provision of life’s necessities to those willing to cooperate with the military.

The success of the government’s initially savage but sophisticated campaign against the rebels has come without significant U.S. military assistance, and top field commanders say that none is necessary now to finish the guerrillas. “We declared a state of siege so we could kill legally,” Rios Montt told a group of politicians. The Roman Catholic Conference of Bishops called what Rios was doing “genocide.” Following Rios’ overthrow, his successor Mejia Victores continued the program, proclaiming that model villages would be extended throughout the country.

As the army bombed, strafed and burned village after village, an estimated 100,000 peasants escaped across the border to Mexico or to the mountainous territory controlled by the guerrillas. Others were captured by the military. Many of those who went to the guerrillas were later forced by hunger to surrender themselves to the military. Their fate was confinement in model villages, what were called strategic hamlets during the U.S. assault on Vietnam.


One of the most oppressive features of Guatemala’s pacification program is the “civilian self-defense patrols” whose ranks are filled by coercion, with most joining out of fear of being called subversive, and thus marked for torture or execution.
Those who do serve in the patrols must “turn in their quota of ‘subversives.”‘ Otherwise, “they will be forced to denounce their own neighbors and to execute them with clubs and fists in the village plaza.”‘

The patrols are believed by most analysts to have been suggested by Israelis. They have had a profound effect on Mayan society, both psychologically, “a permanent violation of our values or a new negative vision,” as the country’s Catholic bishops charged, and practically, as long shifts on patrol prevent fulfillment of family and economic obligations In 1983 the Guatemalan government estimated that 850 villages in the highlands had “self defense” units. The following year the U.S. embassy in Guatemala estimated that 700,000 men had been enrolled in the units, armed with Israeli assistance. Currently 900,000 men are organized into the civil patrols.


It is no accident that the Guatemalans looked to the Israelis for assistance in organizing their campaign against the Indians, and having followed their mentors’ advice, wound up with something that looks quite a bit like the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza strip. As the Israelis wrecked the local economy and turned the occupied territories into a captive market and a cheap labor pool, the Guatemalan military has made economic activity in the occupied highlands all but impossible.

As it is openly acknowledged in the Israeli media that the Palestinian population must not be allowed to exceed the Jewish population, it is common knowledge that the Guatemalan military would like to reduce the Mayan population to a minority.
But most of all there is the unyielding violence of the suppression. The occupation regime Israel has maintained since 1967 over the Palestinians (and its occupation of the Syrian Golan Heights, the Egyptian Sinai and Southern Lebanon) has trained “an entire generation of Israelis…to impose Israeli rule over subject peoples.” “The Israeli soldier is a model and an example to us,” Gen. Benedicto Lucas said in 1981.

It was in the coercive resettlement program that Israel’s activities in Guatemala intersected most directly with those of the Christian right surrounding the Reagan Administration. This was particularly true during the reign of Rios Montt. Montt was a so-called “born-again Christian,” a member (“elder”) of the Arcata, California based Church of the Word, a branch of Evangelical Gospel Outreach.

In Guatemala, the Christian right was interested in converts by the end of 1982 reactionary Protestants had succeeded in recruiting 22 percent of the population to their theology of blind obedience and anti-communism. They were particularly hostile to Catholicism, especially “Liberation Theology,” which many of the Guatemalan military deemed responsible for the insurgency. Right-wing Christian organizations seemed to be especially drawn to the harsh social control being exerted on the highland Mayans. During the Rios Montt period, foreign fundamentalists were permitted access to military operational zones, while Catholics were turned away-or attacked. During this period “many Catholic rectories and churches in Quiche [a highland province] [were] turned into Army barracks. In late 1983, the Vatican itself protested the murder of a Franciscan priest in Guatemala and the (exiled) Guatemalan Human Rights Commission (CDHG) charged that in the space of several months 500 catechists had been disappeared. In October the police caught and tortured some religious workers.

Meanwhile, Rios Montt surrounded himself with advisers, both North American and Guatemalan, from his Verbo church, and what appeared to be a loose coalition of right-wing fundamentalist organizations, most notably Pat Robertson’s Christian Broadcasting Network, began an extensive fundraising drive and also started sending volunteers to Ixil Triangle villages under military control. Rios Montt chose Love Lift International, the “relief arm” of Gospel Outreach, Verbo’s parent church, to carry the food and supplies purchased with the money raised. Verbo representatives, along with an older evangelical outfit, the Wycliffe Bible Translators (WBT/SIL, the latter initials for the Summer Institute of Linguistics, an organization whose CIA connections are long and impeccable and which has often been charged with involvement in massacres of indigenous peoples throughout the Americas), arranged with the government “to take charge of all medical work in the Ixil Triangle, and for all education in Indian areas up to the third grade to be taught in Indian languages with WBT/SIL assistance,” through the Behrhorst Clinic. WBT/SIL and the Clinic’s parent, the Behrhorst Foundation, incorporated with Verbo Church into the Foundation for Aid to the Indian People (FUNDAPI), whose stated purpose was to channel international Christian donations to refugees and which coordinated volunteers from U.S. right-wing religious organizations.

Although nothing has yet emerged which definitively ties Israeli activities in Guatemala to those of the religious right, it is reasonable to assume there is contact. Since the late 1970s the government of Israel has devoted considerable energy to befriending such political luminaries of rightist evangelism as Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson, having turned to these groups after the National Council of Churches passed some mildly reproving resolutions about the Middle East. The Christian extremists tell Israel what it wants to hear. Jerry Falwell found justification in the Bible for an Israel encompassing parts of “lraq, Syria, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan and all of Lebanon, Jordan, and Kuwait. Pat Robertson praised the Reagan Administration’s veto of a UN Security Council resolution condemning Israel’s invasion of Lebanon with some gobbledygook tying the invasion to the fundamentalist superstition that Israel will be the site of the last battle, Armageddon: “Israel has lit the fuse, and it is a fast burning fuse, and I don’t think that the fuse is going to be quenched until that region explodes in flames. That is my personal feeling from the Bible.” Robertson urged his viewers to call the White House and voice their support for the Israeli invasion.

Untroubled by the scene in Armageddon when all the Jews will be converted (or damned), Israel welcomed the “Christian Voice of Hope” radio station and its companion “Star of Hope” television to Southern Lebanon, and, even though proselytizing is illegal in Israel, provided the stations with Israeli government newscasts. Supported by donations from U.S. right-wing evangelicals, and in particular by Pat Robertson’s Christian Broadcasting Network, the stations were “used as a military tool” by the Israeli proxy South Lebanon Army. Aside from the religious right and their secular allies, the Guatemalan model villages have been universally condemned. Until 1985 a bipartisan majority opposed the granting of any U.S. aid that would strengthen the development poles. This, of course, stopped short of undercutting support for the “pacification” program, as funds received from U.S. AID and other foreign sources freed up government funds for use on the model villages. In 1984, U.S. AID granted Guatemala $1 million which was used for constructing infrastructure for the model villages. Americas Watch Vice Chairman Aryeh Neier pointed out that humanitarian assistance from the U.S. has “played an essential role in the Guatemalan Army’s counterinsurgency programs,” enabling the army to distribute (or withhold) food to exact compliance with its resettlement program.


Abdication of Responsibility … When the U.S. intervened in Guatemala and overthrew its liberal, democratically elected government in 1954, it effectively transferred rule to the country’s military, which has held power ever since. Even the civilian presidency of Julio Cesar Mendez Montenegro was (with U.S. acquiescence) immediately subjugated by the military. To cite only one example of the continuity that makes the last three tragic decades of Guatemala a U.S. responsibility: the dossiers that formed the basis of the intelligence unit G-2’s death squad selection process also date back to 1954. After the fall of the government of Jacobo Arbenz, the army confiscated the membership lists of the many organizations which had blossomed during the all-too-short hiatus between repressive regimes- Guatemala was ruled by the oppressive dictator Jorge Ubico until 1945, when he was bloodlessly replaced by a popular government under Dr. Juan Jose Arevalo-and from these lists culled 70,000 “communists.” These files were updated during the 1960s and used for assassinations during a U.S.-supported counterinsurgency. In the 1970s Israel stepped in and helped with the computerization of the whole bloody system. It does not take convoluted reasoning to conclude that “both the U.S. and Israel bear rather serious moral responsibility” for Guatemala.


Rios Montt, Hero to the Christian Right, Guilty of Genocide in Guatemala
Bill Berkowitz
Fri May 10, 2013 at 11:08:39 PM EST

Former Guatemalan dictator and darling of the American Christian Right, Rios Montt, was found guilty of genocide, making world news. ABC News has a timeline of the trial. The New York Times has the story of the verdict. Below is the story of the original indictment as reported by our own Bill Berkowitz on March 12, 20112: Guatemala’s Former Leader Charged with Genocide. Pat Robertson Enabled It. — FC

Nearly thirty years ago, Guatemala’s ruthless dictator, José Efraín Ríos Montt and televangelist Pat Robertson were practically tied at the hip. Now, Guatemala’s judicial system is debating how to handle charges of genocide against the former military dictator, while Robertson, who had praised Ríos Montt for his `enlightened leadership,’ appears to have turned his back on his old friend.

In the early 1980s, José Efraín Ríos Montt, a military general was a favorite of the Reagan Administration and U.S. Christian conservative evangelical leaders – particularly televangelist Pat Robertson — and organizations. Ríos Montt was one of a series of military dictators that masterminded the murders of perhaps as many as 200,000 Guatemalans — including tens of thousands of Mayan people — as well as the destruction of a numerous Mayan villages.

Now, some thirty years later, Ríos Montt, whose rule as de-facto president lasted for seventeen months in 1982 and 1983 — taking over in a military coup before being ousted by a subsequent military coup – has been ordered “to stand trial on charges of genocide and crimes against humanity,” the New York Times recently reported.

Rios Montt is accused of being responsible for at least 1,770 deaths, 1,400 human rights violations, and the displacement of nearly 30,000 indigenous Guatemalans.

This is the first time a Latin American court has charged a former president with genocide.

In late February, however, the judge in charge of the trial, Carol Patricia Flores, stepped down after being accused of being biased in the case. According to several press accounts, the new judge, Miguel Angel Galvez, who before postponing a scheduled hearing until the 1st of March, said that the charges against Ríos Montt as well as the conditions of his bail and house arrest, would remain in place.

During Ríos Montt’s reign, “the military carried out a scorched-earth campaign in the Mayan highlands as soldiers hunted down bands of leftist guerrillas. Survivors have described how military units wiped out Indian villages with extraordinary brutality, killing all the women and children along with the men. Military documents of the time described the Indians as rebel collaborators, the New York Times reported.”

A United Nations-backed truth commission, “set up after a peace accord in 1996, found that 200,000 people were killed during the civil war, mostly by state security forces. The violence against Mayan-Ixil villages amounted to genocide because the entire population was targeted, the commission concluded,” the Times pointed out.

The Religious Right and the Ruthless Dictator

Thirty years ago, the Religious Right played a significant role in U.S.-Central American relations: vigorously supporting President Ronald Reagan’s so-called low-intensity wars in the region – the contras in Nicaragua, right wing paramilitary death squads in El Salvador, and military dictators in Guatemala – a policy that was responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of people. The Religious Right’s support was in part couched in the struggle against communism, and in part tied to what they hoped would be the expansion of evangelical Protestantism in the region.

Guatemala’s José Efraín Ríos Montt was a favorite of the Rev. Jerry Falwell, Loren Cunningham’s Youth With A Mission (YWAM), and televangelist Pat Robertson.

In his book, The Most Dangerous Man in America?: Pat Robertson and the Rise of the Christian Coalition, Americans United’s Rob Boston pointed out that Pat Robertson had praised Ríos Montt for his “enlightened leadership” and claimed that the dictator insisted on “honesty in government.” Observed Robertson, “I was in Guatemala three days after Ríos Montt overthrew the corrupt [previous] government. The people had been dancing in the street for joy, literally fulfilling the words of Solomon who said, ‘When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice.'”

According to Right Web, a project of the Institute for Policy Studies, “Within a week of the 1982 coup … Robertson flew to Guatemala to meet with the new president. Ríos Montt’s first interview as president was with Robertson, who aired it on [his Christian Broadcasting Network’s program]`The 700 Club’ and praised the new military government. Robertson also urged donations for International Love Lift, a relief project of Ríos Montt’s U.S. church, Gospel Outreach. Ríos Montt said that Pat Robertson had offered to send missionaries and `more than a billion dollars’ in aid from U.S. fundamentalists. Robertson, however, claimed that he hoped to match the earlier CBN donation of $350,000 in earthquake relief and send `a small team of medical and agricultural experts’ to Guatemala. CBN reportedly sponsored a campaign to send money and agricultural and medical technicians to help design the first model villages under Ríos Montt.”

In her 1989 book, Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right (South End Press), Sara Diamond wrote: “Ríos Montt’s ascension to power was celebrated by the U.S. Christian Right as a sign of divine intervention in Central America.”

While Robertson never delivered the sums of money Ríos Montt expected, Diamond pointed out that the promise “enabled Ríos Montt to convince the U.S. Congress that he would not seek massive sums of U.S. aid. Instead, he would rely on `private aid’ from U.S. evangelicals. Toward that end, Ríos Montt’s aide… came to the United States for a meeting with… [Presidential counselor] Edwin Meese, Interior Secretary James Watt… and Christian Right leaders Pat Robertson, Jerry Falwell, and Loren Cunningham).”

In an article written prior to the publication of her book, Diamond pointed out that Montt was a member of Gospel Outreach, a fundamentalist sect based in Eureka, California, which became the Church of the Word. Diamond noted that “The Gospel in Guatemala,” a PBS documentary, “revealed the complicity of Gospel Outreach in the Guatemalan Army’s administration of camps for refugees from Rios Montt’s brutal counterinsurgency massacres of Mayan Quiche Indians.”

In the September 25, 2006 edition of The Nation magazine, Max Blumenthal reported that, Loren Cunningham, according to Diamond “was a follower of Christian Reconstructionism an extreme current of evangelical theology that advocates using stealth political methods to put the United States under the control of Biblical law and jettison the Constitution.”

These days, while Guatemalans are seeking justice, Pat Robertson is still selling snake oil on his “700 Club.” One of the Grand Old Men of televangelism is no longer as significant a political figure that he once was.

“In 1996, I called Pat Robertson `the most dangerous man in America,’ but I wouldn’t do that now,” Americans United’s Rob Boston told me in an email. “Robertson is clearly in his dotage and is no longer the powerful political figure he once was. His influence declined greatly when the Christian Coalition collapsed. Without a large political organization behind him, Robertson became just another TV preacher ranting over the airwaves.”

Boston was careful, however, to give Robertson his props. “That doesn’t mean we should dismiss Robertson as an unimportant figure,” Boston explained. “The model he used to launch the Christian Coalition has been copied by others, including the Family Research Council, thus ensuring that his legacy will be felt for many years to come.”

Meanwhile, according to two experienced right-wing watchers, Robertson has not so much as uttered the name of his former Guatemalan contact, José Efraín Ríos Montt, on “The 700 Club.”


Rios Montt, Hero to the Christian Right, Guilty of Genocide in Guatemala | 8 comments (8 topical, 0 hidden)
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Bill, I’m glad you’ve recapped this chapter of recent history. If you get a chance, psychologist James Waller’s book Becoming Evil includes interviews with both victims and perpetrators of the horrible violence, killing, and torture in Guatemala. Waller’s book did groundbreaking work in constructing a general model of how average people could be conditioned to carry out mass political violence.

Also, here’s some research I just did, which I tacked on, a few days ago, as a footnote to one of my stories on Harold Caballeros – it documents ties between the charismatic stream that has become the NAR, and Rios Montt.

Here goes:

In his book Dominion: How Kingdom Action Can Change the World, C. Peter Wagner notes the enthusiastic reception that the administration of Guatemalan president Efraín Ríos Montt initially received from evangelical leaders and media, writing,

“I recall the elation among U.S. Christian leaders when Efraín Ríos Montt became Guatemala’s first born-again president back in the early 1980s. He had a noble vision of ending corruption and overcoming the Marxist guerrilla bands ravaging the nation. The U.S. evangelical media, including Charisma, Christianity Today, Pat Robertson’s CBN, Jerry Falwell, Luis Palau and others, raised hope of authentic social transformation of that nation. Palau said of Ríos Montt, “The hand of God appears to be on him.”

Wagner goes on to acknowledge the genocidal level of killing under Ríos Montt but tries to shift blame away from president Ríos Montt himself:

“under Ríos Montt’s regime the violence in Guatemala reached unprecedented heights, with some two hundred thousand fatalities, mostly among innocent, civilian indigenous peoples. He undoubtedly was up against high-level spiritual forces of evil that were having their way. Despite all his good intentions, he could not control his own military, and after only seventeen months in office, he was deposed by a coup. Transformation did not occur despite the backing of the international Body of Christ and influence at the highest governmental level.”

Subsequent developments have cast a shadow over Wagner’s extremely revisionist take on Ríos Montt’s role in Guatemala’s genocidal “dirty war”, with Ríos Montt now on trial for genocide and crimes against humanity. As described in a January 27, 2012 Christian Science Monitor post,

“On Thursday, Efrain Rios Montt appeared in a Guatemalan court on genocide charges. During the hearing, the government presented evidence of over 100 incidents involving at least 1,771 deaths, 1,445 rapes, and the displacement of nearly 30,000 Guatemalans during his 17-month rule from 1982-1983, according to the Washington Post, BBC, Siglo XXI (in Spanish), and the LA Times.

Rios Montt did not speak during today’s hearings, but it looks like he will be able to test his “I was never on the battlefield” defense. Tonight, judge Carol Patricia Flores determined that there is enough evidence to try Rios Montt on charges of genocide and crimes against humanity. The prosecution wanted him incarcerated because of his potential for flight but the judge ruled that he can remain out on bail. He has now been placed under house arrest and will be watched by the Guatemalan National Civil Police (PNC).”

C. Peter Wagner was somewhat closer to the topic than he acknowledged – one of the longtime members of Wagner’s International Coalition of Apostles has been Dennis Peacocke, who was listed as an ICA member from the dues-paying organization’s inception in 2001 up until the ICA put its membership list, previously publicly available on the ICA website, behind a password-protected firewall, in 2010.

But Wagner’s ties to Peacocke go back much farther – the two were original members of the Coalition on Revival. As researcher Rachel Tabachnick describes,

“The Coalition on Revival (COR) brought together Religious Right figures from many different theological backgrounds. In the 1980s, they produced a set of Worldview Documents laying a ideological foundation for activism to take authority over 17 various areas of culture and government.

The Coalition on Revival included several Charismatic leaders who are now a part of the New Apostolic Reformation, including Dennis Peacocke and Bob Weiner, formerly head of Maranatha Campus Ministries. C. Peter Wagner is listed as a signer of the COR’s Christian Manifesto for the Church. The concept advanced in the COR’s 17 Worldview Documents, has now been simplified by apostles of the New Apostolic Reformation into the Seven Mountains mandate, a campaign for taking control of: arts and entertainment, business, education, family, government, media, and religion.”

In 1984, the year that Dr. Jay Grimstead called together the 112 Christian leaders who comprised the Coalition on Revival, and the year after Efraín Ríos Montt was deposed in a coup, COR member Dennis Peacocke held a seminar that featured Ríos Montt as a keynote speaker, according to researcher Sara Diamond.

As described in Diamond’s book Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right (South End Press, 1989),

“Peacocke’s political organization, Alive and Free, is based in Northern California and has sponsored various right-wing conferences including one on “pro-family” issues featuring Phyllis Schafly. In December 1984, Peacocke conducted a seminar, called “Marxism On The Doorstep: Conflict To The South” which included presentations from various intelligence operatives and a keynote address by former Guatemalan dictator Efraín Ríos Montt. Peacocke and his associates have also been active in efforts to destabilize Nicaragua.” [Diamond, page 128]

Diamond’s book contains substantial research on the degree to which conservative evangelical missions work, especially by charismatic, born-again evangelicals, aligned during the 1980s with U.S. anti-communist foreign policy initiatives (often covert in nature) that were antagonistic to the establishment of democracies in the developing world and were commonly associated with substantial human rights violations. Writes Diamond, on page 161,

“One of the hallmarks of the Reagan era was the increasing “privatization” of U.S. foreign policy, the government’s deployment of groups and individuals unaccountable to citizens through constitutionally mandated channels. The Christian right has an integral role to play in this “private” pursuit of the “national interest”, particularly in the execution of “total conflict” warfare strategy known as “low intensity conflict”. Briefly, “low intensity conflict” (LIC) posits that in order for the United States to achieve its political objectives in the Third World, what is required even more than brute military force is a comprehensive, coordinated set of tactics designed to create desired attitudes–and corresponding political responses–both domestically and in “target” countries…

But from Vietnam to El Salvador, the euphemisms “low intensity” and “counterinsurgency” translate into real terms: death squad assasinations napalm and, as in Nicaragua, the kind of prolonged economic sabotage that takes its toll in escalated infant mortality rates.” [Diamond, page 161]

by Villabolo on Sat May 11, 2013 at 04:49:28 PM EST
Parent The site is still online (none / 0)

by FindingTruth on Sun May 12, 2013 at 12:02:30 PM EST

A N T I F A I N F O – B U L L E T I N
News * Analysis * Research * Action
Volume 1, Number 5 ***** March 7, 1996

Communism as the ultimate evil has always been the specter haunting property owners, as it threatens the very root of their class position and superior status. The Soviet, Chinese, and Cuban revolutions were traumas to Western elites, and the on-going conflicts and the well-publicized abuses of Communist states have contributed to elevating opposition to communism to a first principle of Western ideology and politics. This ideology helps mobilize the populace against an enemy, and because the concept is fuzzy it can be used against anybody advocating policies that threaten property interests or support accommodation with Communist states or radicalism. It therefore helps fragment the left and labor movements and serves as a political- control mechanism. If the triumph of communism is the worst imaginable result, the support of fascism abroad is justified as a lesser evil.
— Edward S. Herman & Noam Chomsky

A Small Circle of Friends: Larry Pratt, the Council for Inter-American Security and International Fascist Networks
by Tom Burghardt
Bay Area Coalition for Our Reproductive Rights

The Council for Inter-American Security CIS and WACL: A Marriage Made in Hell
Larry Pratt, the Council for Inter-American Security and the War Against Immigrants


Recent allegations of anti-Semitism and racism levelled against Larry Pratt, a national co-chairman of the Buchanan for President campaign committee, is an intriguing example of media obfuscation and “truth” on the half-shell. That Pratt addressed the 1992 “Christian Men’s Meeting,” organized by notorious Christian Identity racist, Pete Peters, is an established fact. That Pratt shared the platform with Aryan Nations fuhrer , Richard Butler and “former” Klan “Grand Dragon,” Louis Beam, the neo-Nazi architect of “leaderless resistance,” is incontestable. That he gave a speech at the 1993 Jubilation Conference in Sacramento, California, an annual gathering of far-rightists’ sponsored by the anti-Semitic publisher of Jubilee, the flagship tabloid of the Christian Identity movement, is true and has been accurately reported by the bourgeois press.

What should be of equal concern to the media is information about Mr. Pratt which is far more damaging — his close collaboration over a 20 year period with an international network of war criminals, neo-Nazi terrorists, and the organizers of Asian, European and Latin American death squads. But because such activities advanced the geopolitical and military goals of the United States, Pratt’s actual record is passed over in silence ; a facet of media self-censorship that has been well- documented elsewhere.[1]

At the outset of this report I will emphasize, Pratt is a reactionary whose political orientation can aptly be described as clerical-fascist. On numerous occasions, he has expressed disdain for democracy and the economic, political and social rights of the oppressed. His ideological and personal links to the theocratic wing of the Christian Right, the anti-abortion movement and “Patriot” militias, though of interest, will be explored in another report currently in preparation.

This edition of AFIB however, will explore at some length, the dimensions of Larry Pratt’s ties to the national security state. I will demonstrate that Pratt, Buchanan and a host of other “respectable conservatives,” far from being “outsiders” or “populists” are active agents and apologists for the global crimes of U.S. imperialism.

The Council for Inter-American Security: Intellectuals in the Service of Global Terror

The Council for Inter-American Security (CIS) is a rightist outfit that played a pivotal role formulating Washington’s program for counter-revolutionary war and mass murder in Central America during the 1980s. Larry Pratt, was a central figure within the CIS hierarchy as was Patrick Buchanan; Pratt was secretary to the group while Buchanan functioned as an organizational director (see Appendix for complete list of board members and principle players).

But CIS was more than a New Right think-tank researching and formulating foreign policy for the Reagan administration. The group functioned in a dual-capacity; as an alarmist “public policy institute” and as a domestic spy ring, a “privatized” version of the FBI’s infamous COINTELPRO operations. Having staked-out Latin America as their geopolitical niche, CIS targeted Central America solidarity activists, progressive clergy, and the Salvadoran exile community. The group gathered intelligence and disseminated disinformation, funneling data on foreign policy opponents to the FBI and the intelligence service of the Salvadoran death squad state.

The domestic side to illegal CIA-Contra operations were aided by a broad spectrum of domestic and international reactionaries. Many of the state-sanctioned criminals who sought to subvert democratic processes in the U.S. and overseas were connected to a network which included, among others: the John Birch Society (JBS); the World Anti-Communist League (WACL); Christian fundamentalist and Catholic theocrats; anti-Castro terrorists grouped in Alpha 66/Brigade 2506; the LaRouche organization and the Unification Movement of South Korean fascist, Rev. Sun Myung Moon.[2]

While such groups operated secretly, they did so with the knowledge, financial backing and encouragement of powerful American corporate and political interests. According to journalist Ross Gelbspan:

A…private group which flourished during the Reagan era was the Washington-based Council for Inter-American Security. The group disseminated reams of material during the 1980s purporting to prove linkages between a Soviet-inspired global terror network and liberal and left-wing American groups opposed to US foreign policies. CIS also expended considerable effort to improve the public image of the reputed Salvadoran death squad leader Roberto D’Aubuisson. When the FBI’s CISPES files were pried open in 1988 by a lawsuit brought by the Center for Constitutional Rights they were found to contain several reports written by J. Michael Waller, a researcher whose work has been sponsored by the nongovernmental Council for Inter-American Security. But Waller’s work to connect American political dissenters to an international communist-terrorist plot was part of a public- private partnership.[3]

By 1984, FBI “active measures” against CISPES and the Sanctuary Movement were in full-swing. Fifteen Bureau field offices, dozens of agents and hundreds of “private” right-wing intelligence “assets” were involved in these illegal operations. More than 200 incidents of harassment and intimidation against activists were documented. Many incidents involved church and office break-ins, theft of files and the infiltration of local CISPES chapters by Bureau informants. Peaceful public rallies and demonstrations were disrupted by goons affiliated with Rev. Moon’s Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (CARP).

One case that had particularly ominous implications was that of Yanira Corea, a 24 year old Salvadoran exile active in the Los Angeles CISPES chapter. In June 1987, the young woman was kidnapped, sexually assaulted, tortured and threatened with death if her “subversive” activities didn’t stop. Corea’s brother was a union activist in El Salvador. Prior to her abduction she received a threatening letter containing dried flower petals a photo of her three year old son and the notation — “Flowers in the desert die,” a traditional warning of the death squads.[4]

Though Bureau informants could not produce a shred of evidence linking these groups to “terrorism,” the FBI actually increased the level of their attacks. According to the logic of Bureau red hunters, the lack of criminal activity in and of itself was demonstrable evidence of a broad “conspiracy” hatched by shrewd agents linked to the KGB. This was an illusion that the Council for Inter-American Security helped to create.

Throughout the period, the FBI were fed reports alleging that CISPES was a “terrorist” organization. Waller, a research director and editor of the CIS journal, West Watch , wrote a text with the fanciful title, “CISPES: A Terrorist Propaganda Network,” that was given wide play by the media.[5] However, because Mr. Waller’s services produced the desired propaganda effect intended by his handlers, he secured several generous grants from the State Department’s Latin American Office of Public Diplomacy (OPD).[6] Recent American history is replete with examples of the profitability of lying in order to advance State interests; Elliot Abrams and Oliver North are but the tip of the iceberg in this regard.

Prior to Reagan’s 1980 election, CIS was the principle organization leading the charge for an “activist” foreign policy to “defeat communism” in Central America. In 1980, they published the influential, A New Inter-American Policy for the Eighties , generally known as the “Santa Fe Document.”

Lewis Tambs, “Sante Fe’s” principle editor, would be appointed by Reagan as ambassador, first to Columbia and then to Costa Rica, the launching pad for Contra attacks into Nicaragua along the “Southern front.”[7]Other Committee of Sante Fe members included Roger Fontaine, a National Security Council (NSC) adviser on Latin American affairs; retired Lt. General Gordon Sumner, who became a special assistant to the Secretary of State for Latin American affairs; and Lynn Francis Bouchey, an active organizer for the Unification Church’s CAUSA operations in Central and South America.[8]

Bouchey, the co-author of The Strategy of Terror (written with Stefan Possony), was a former member of the Young Americans for Freedom employed by the American-Chilean Council, a front for the murderous Pinochet regime.[9] Possony, a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institute, long-time WACL operative and board member of Lyndon LaRouche’s, Fusion Energy Foundation, was a founding member of the Council, as was Dr. Anthony Bouscaren, a right-wing operative who had worked for the racist Pioneer Fund (see below).[10]

The Committee of Sante Fe alleged among other things, that the U.S. “must seize the initiative or perish. World War III is almost over.” CIS viewed the Soviet Union as an “aggressor” that was “strangling the Western industrialized nations.”[11]
Central America was described as “the soft underbelly of the United States.” The authors called for the “restoration” of the Monroe Doctrine as the linchpin of U.S. regional strategy. In other words, the United States was free to pursue its regional interests unhindered. Bluntly, this meant that the internal politics of the Central American states were subject to “review” by the U.S.: “correctives” — dictated from Washington — would be applied as needed.

As a practical necessity, such “correctives” included the destruction of the Cuban, Grenadian and Nicaraguan Revolutions and the maintenance of “the fundamental order of things” in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. The Committee wrote:
America is everywhere in retreat. The impending loss of the petroleum of the Middle East and potential interdiction of sea routes spanning the Indian Ocean, along with the Soviet satellization of the mineral zone of Southern Africa, foreshadow the Findlandization of Western Europe and the alienation of Japan.

Even the Caribbean, America’s maritime crossroad and petroleum refining center is becoming a Marxist-Leninist lake. Never before has the Republic been in such jeopardy from its exposed southern flank. Never before has American foreign policy abused, abandoned and betrayed its allies to the south in Latin America.

…It is time to sound a clarion call for freedom, dignity and national self-interest which will echo the spirit of the American people. Either a Pax Sovietica or a world-wide counter-projection of American power is in the offing. The hour of decision can no longer be postponed.[12]

Though the authors freely employed alarmist rhetoric with little regard to the actual history of U.S. regional domination, “Sante Fe” was not the production of marginal right-wing “kooks” obsessed by the “red menace.” According to the Interhemispheric Resource Center,

In the early years of the Reagan administration, the organization was one of the more influential think tanks of the New Right, providing both policy and policymakers to the new administration. In the heyday of its influence, one observer noted, top officials of CIS “shuttle[d] to and from key policy-making and advisory roles in the administration….” Among those tapped for administration positions were Patrick Buchanan, who became President Reagan’s communications director…[13]

Today, Buchanan markets himself as an “outsider” standing up for the “workin’ man,” against a godless, secular humanist cabal of multinational corporations, abortionists, feminists, homosexuals, immigrants and socialistic “one-worlders” intent on imposing a New World Order on the American people. His project has been assisted by the media who have tossed his actual record down the Orwellian memory-hole.

As noted above, CIS was engaged in a covert war against U.S. leftists, progressive clergy and the Salvadoran exile community, channeling information gleaned by its operatives, to the FBI and the Salvadoran national security apparatus. This too, has a long history in the United States.[14]

Col. Samuel Dickens, a former intelligence officer and CIS board member, was the executive director for inter-hemispheric affairs for the American Security Council (ASC), an outfit founded by ex-FBI agents. ASC was an instrumental group which targeted leftists during the 1950s, the period of the McCarthyite witch-hunts. Founded in 1955, ASC funding has been provided by Motorola, Lockheed, Boeing and General Dynamics, among others.[15] The information they collected, much of it bogus, was then sold to ASC’s dues-paying corporate members. At the height of their domestic operations ASC red hunters, including the sinister Roy Cohn, Senator McCarthy’s chief inquisitor, were gathering the names of alleged “subversives” at the staggering rate of 20,000 per month. [16] One analyst has said that the ASC is “not just the representative of the military-industrial complex, it is the personification of the military-industrial complex.”[17]

Another significant source of support for the Council and a host of other “conservative” organizations, was Rev. Moon’s Unification Church. Bouchey helped organize two conferences for CAUSA, led by another retired general, E. David Woellner.[18] He was also a board member of the United States Global Strategy Council, identified by researchers, Louis Wolf and Frederick Clarkson as “another CAUSA operation.”[19] In 1981, Bouchey was “specially commissioned” by Moon’s World Media Institute to prepare and present a “content analysis” of media coverage of U.S. policy in El Salvador.[20]

Active chapters of Moon’s organization existed throughout the region; the largest affiliates were centered in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. In Brazil, the director of CAUSA said, “we are forming the future base for a large political party, though at present we are still apolitical…we want to form a movement like Le Pen’s in France.” Needless to say, French fascist, Jean Le Pen, has done just that with the National Front, with significant financial backing from the Moon network.[21]

But Moon’s extensive Latin American operations had a dual- purpose: the construction of an anti-communist “armed church” and as a “unofficial” link among CIA intelligence assets and the leaders of the death-squad states.

In Bolivia, Thomas Ward was a liaison between the CIA, Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie, Barbie’s organization, the “Fiances of Death” and the regime of “cocaine general” Luiz Garcia Meza, prior to Bolivia’s bloody 1980 putsch. Ward and Barbie “were often seen together;” the introspective Ward was described as an individual “who always seemed to be absorbed in prayer.” According to Col. Bo Hi Pak, Moon’s chief lieutenant: “God has chosen the Bolivian people in the heart of South America as theones to conquer communism.” This during a period when Bolivian narco-operations were greatly expanding — with the knowledge of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.[22]

Other CIS board members or advisors who have had close ties to the Moon organization:
Roger Fontaine: a former member of the National Security Council. After leaving the NSC, Fontaine became a reporter and political analyst for the Washington Times , a newspaper owned by a subsidiary of the Moon network. Salvadoran death-squad leader, Roberto D’Aubuisson bragged of his ties to the Reagan administration, particularly Roger Fontaine, to the New York Times during a 1981 interview.[23]

Lt. General Gordon Sumner: a CIS director and advisor; Sumner was also a board member of the International Security Council (ISC), described by Herman and O’Sullivan as the “main U.S. agency of the Moon system in the field of terrorism propaganda.” An international conference organized by ISC and CAUSA was held in January 1986 in Tel Aviv; speakers included Bo Hi Pak and Arnaud de Borchgrave, the publisher of theWashington Times. [24]

These were neither incidental nor marginal connections. CIS served both as an intelligence conduit from “private” sources such as the American Security Council and CAUSA, and as an informal employment agency which provided analysts to the Reagan administration at the inception of Washington’s murderous counter-insurgency wars in Central America.

As CIS secretary, Larry Pratt was a well-placed “asset” in his own right, serving as a link between the public policy/research arms of the organization, the interventionist wing of the theocratic Christian Right and as an “informal” public relations spokesperson for Washington’s Central American agenda via Gun Owners of America and the CIS-affiliated, North-South Institute.

But in order to fully appreciate the sinister nature of the Council for Inter-American Security, Pratt’s involvement and his broader links to international fascist networks, there is another organization, also little explored by “mainstream” media, which deserves our attention, the World Anti-Communist League.

CIS and WACL: A Marriage Made in Hell

The World Anti-Communist League was founded in 1966 by two close Asian allies of the United States, Taiwan and South Korea, and a third organization, the Nazi-dominated, Anti-Bolshevik Block of Nations (ABN), led by the Ukrainian war criminal Yaroslav Stetsko.[25] As we have seen above with CIS, Rev. Moon’s Unification network was an instrumental force operating behind the scenes. Moon assets were closely linked to the Korean Central Intelligence Agency and Japanese yakuza crime syndicates, many of whose leaders were convicted war criminals let off the hook by U.S. occupation forces at the war’s end.
ABN was a organizational bridge linking Eastern and Western European fascists to the intelligence services of Britain and the United States. Indeed, ABN was formed with U.S. funds and was a model frequently employed by future anti-communist emigre groups. Washington’s unflagging commitment to the destruction of the Soviet Union was a continuation of the Third Reich’s “Operation Barbarossa” — by other means. Christopher Simpson’s description of the group provides a chilling glimpse into the modus operandi of “containment:”

The ABN was dominated by Ukrainian nationalist veterans of the OUN/UPA (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists/Ukrainian Insurgent Army), and it included a half dozen open Nazi collaborators on its executive board. Its newspaper, ABN Correspondence , published praises of wartime genocidalists such as Ustachi _Fuhrer_ Ante Pavelic and Slovakian quisling Premier Monsignor Jozef Tiso. Alfreds Berzins, whom the U.S. government once termed a “fanatic Nazi” responsible for sending innocent people to concentration camps, was the president of the ABN “People’s Council.” Berzins was simultaneously a Latvian leader of the Assembly of Captive European Nations. His vice- president at the ABN was the Belorussian quisling Radislaw Ostrowsky.[26]

If such anti-communist “patriots” were serviceable as “democrats” abroad, why not at home? In the United States, WACL’s first chairman was Roger Pearson, a white supremacist, eugenicist and neo-Nazi. Pearson was the editor of Willis Carto’s anti-Semitic rag, Western Destiny , the forerunner of the Liberty Lobby’s Spotlight tabloid. By the mid 1970s, Pearson served on the editorial boards of both the Heritage Foundation and the American Security Council.[27]

Last Fall, Mr. Pratt addressed a Liberty Lobby testimonial banquet in honor of the 20th anniversary of Spotlight . Though Larry Pratt has stated publicly he “loathes” groups such as Aryan Nations and other Nazis, it would appear his oft-quoted protestations of “innocence” are less than credible given Mr. Carto’s documented history of bigotry and racism.

Pearson, who has described himself as a “mainstream conservative,” boasted to an associate about his alleged role in hiding Nazi doctor Josef Mengele, the “Angel of Death” who directed Nazi “medical experiments” at the Auschwitz extermination camp. With degrees in anthropology and economics, Pearson is the author several books on eugenics. His most “popular” are Eugenics and Race and Race and Civilization . He credits Professor Hans F. K. Gunther, a Nazi racial theoretician, as the inspiration behind the latter volume.[28]

Under Pearson’s tutelage, WACL added Western European chapters that were drawn from the ranks of Nazi war criminals, Third Reich collaborators, neo-Nazis and right-wing terrorists. Western European affiliates included the racist British League of Rights and Italy’s Italian Social Movement (MSI). Pino Rauti, the founder of the outlawed group, Ordine Nuovo was a key WACL Western European contact.[29] Rauti and countless other Italian fascists including the war criminal, June Valerio “Black Prince” Borghese, and key members of the Italian general staff, were “rehabilitated” Nazi collaborators recruited by the CIA into NATO’s “stay behind” anti-communist terror network, also known as “Gladio.”[30]

An off-shoot of Ordine Nuovo was the terrorist group, the Armed Revolutionary Nuclei (ARN), responsible for the 1980 bombing of the Bologna train station which killed 85 people. The notorious neo-fascist killer, Stefano delle Chiaie, the ARN architect of the Bologna massacre, attended the pivotal 1980 conference of the WACL-affiliated, Latin American Anti-Communist Confederation (CAL), held in Buenos Aires at the height of the “dirty war” against the Argentine left.[31]
CAL was the organizational expression of a little-known group of Mexican neo-Nazis, the Tecos or “owls,” centered at the Autonomous University of Guadalajara. Founded by Third Reich collaborator, Carlos Cuesta Gallardo, the Tecos have created several anti-communist front groups which include the Mexican Anti-Communist Federation (FEMACO) and the Inter-American Confederation of Continental Defense (IACCD). These “men of action” were drawn from the ranks of the Mexican secret police, military officers, wealthy landowners and industrialists.[32]

Tecos leader, Raimundo Guerrero, was recruited into the organization by Gallardo. According to Anderson and Anderson, the Tecos have close links with the remnants of the Romanian Iron Guard fascists of Horia Sima in Spain. The group publishes the anti-Semitic magazine, Replica . Serving as a liaison among right-wing death squads throughout Latin America, the Tecos joined WACL in 1972. But the Tecos are more than a collection of aging Nazis; investigative journalist Manuel Buendia, was assassinated in Mexico City after publishing a three-part series exposing “Los Tecos” in 1984.[33]

The 1980 CAL conclave was hosted by members of the military junta and the Argentine Anti-Communist Alliance (AAA) death squad. Delle Chiaie journeyed to Buenos Aires from Bolivia where he had forged a murder-for-hire and cocaine smuggling partnership with CIA asset, Klaus Barbie.[34]

Others who attended the CAL conference included, John Carbaugh, an aide to North Carolina Senator Jesse Helms and Mario Sandoval Alarcon, the “godfather” of the Guatemalan death squads. Sandoval brought along a protege to Buenos Aires, the cashiered Salvadoran army major, Roberto D’Aubuisson. In 1981, Sandoval was an invited guest at the Reagan inaugural ball.[35]

Another individual who was an honored guest at the Reagan fete was Adolpho Cuellar, the chairman of WACL’s branch in El Salvador; that is, until he was permanently “removed from service” by the FMLN. According to Holly Sklar, “Cuellar is remembered by former Salvadoran army officers ‘as a man who used to appear at interrogation centers and beg permission to torture the prisoners.'”[36]

Shortly after the CAL conference, 50 Argentine “military advisors” and unconventional warfare “specialists” arrived in El Salvador and began training the military junta in advanced counter-insurgency “techniques,” much as their Israeli counterparts were doing in Guatemala and Honduras.[37] They were joining CIA and U.S. Army Special Forces operatives already in place. Massacres and “disappearances” escalated at an alarming rate.[38]

Such developments were greeted with enthusiasm by CIS and their fellow-travellers. Board member, Andy Messing, a close personal friend of Lt. Col. North and the president of the National Defense Council said at the time, “going to war is [my] favorite pastime.”[39]

When Pearson became too hot to handle he was forced to resign in 1980, temporarily replaced as WACL’s North American chairman by Elmer D. Greaves, an organizer of the segregationist Citizens Council.[40] But did Pearson leave in disgrace, discredited as a fascist, a racist and an apologist for the Nazi Holocaust? Hardly. Hanging on the wall of Pearson’s Washington, D.C. office is a letter from then President, Ronald Reagan:

You are performing a valuable service in bringing to a wide audience the work of leading scholars who are supportive of a free enterprise economy, a firm and consistent foreign policy and a strong national defense.
Your substantial contributions to promoting and upholding those ideals and principles that we value at home and abroad are greatly appreciated.[41]

With Pearson’s departure, WACL was in crisis and in danger of disbanding. It is during this period, that John K. Singlaub came to the rescue, reorganizing WACL’s American chapter.

Retired U.S. Army General and CIS board member, John K. Singlaub, has a long, bloody history of involvement with the formulation and execution of U.S. counter-insurgency strategy and covert operations around the world. A member of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) at the end of World War II, Singlaub moved up the ladder, becoming CIA desk officer for China in 1949 and deputy station chief in Korea during the war. During the Vietnam war he commanded the Special Operations Group, which implemented the CIA’s Phoenix Operation, responsible for the cold-blooded murder of some 40,000 Vietnamese and the imprisonment of hundreds of thousands of other Vietnamese in “strategic hamlets.” Singlaub was appointed head of the U.S command in South Korea in 1976, but was removed in 1978 when he publicly disagreed with President Carter’s plans to withdraw U.S. troops.[42]

A significant figure, within the national security apparatus and the far-right, Singlaub was well-placed to serve as a contact who could network neo-fascist killers, drug peddlers and state- sanctioned terrorist “assets” employed by the national security state itself. Herman and O’Sullivan write:

Singlaub was…close to the Reagan White House. From April 1983 until October 1984 he chaired an official Pentagon panel established to design U.S. policies toward developing countries. The panel also included Brigadier General Heine Anderholt, a contributing editor to _Soldier of Fortune_, and another half dozen extreme right-wing military officers and academicians. In April 1984, Singlaub met with President Reagan and National Security Advisor Robert McFarlane and was named “the chief fund-raising contact” to the contra army in Central America. With this choice, the president plucked from the world of the paramilitary/neo- Nazi fringe a man who had spent six years since his forced retirement from the army in some of the most powerful and dangerous organizations on the U.S. and international extreme right, where his associates included former Nazis, Nazi collaborators, anti-Semites, leaders of death squads, and a motley crew of mercenaries. Reagan honored these with a warm greeting to WACL at its 1984 gathering, asserting that the organization was playing a “leadership role” in the “gallant struggle being waged by the true freedom fighters of our day.” Within a year at Bitburg, Reagan would pay his respects to the Waffen-SS.[43]

It is within this context as well, that Patrick Buchanan, then Reagan’s communications director, echoed calls issued by the Nazi-linked, Captive Nations Committee (CNC), to abolish the Justice Department’s Office for Special Investigations (OSI), responsible for prosecuting war criminals still at large. This should not come as a shock to anyone, since many members of CNC held dual membership in WACL.

Andy Messing, as well as Howard Phillips, chairman of The Conservative Caucus and current leader of the United States Taxpayers Party (USTP), were key figures within WACL’s American branch. Larry Pratt shares Phillips’ ideological commitment to the clerical-fascist doctrine of Christian Reconstructionism; indeed, Pratt is a national committee member of Phillips’ USTP.

Phillips and other American far-rightists, including Black “pro-life” Republican Party presidential candidate, Alan Keyes, were members of the South Africa lobby. The International Freedom Foundation (IFF), an organization founded by “conservative” activist, Jack Abramhoff, was recently exposed by senior South African military personnel as a cut-out of the South African military and Special Branch. IFF functioned as a propaganda arm for South African STRATCOM (strategic communications) counter-insurgency operations directed against the African National Congress and the trade union confederation.[44]

These are some of the individuals found within Mr. Pratt’s small circle of friends, but for “reasons of state,” the bourgeois media has tended to “forget” the invaluable services rendered to imperialism by such “extremist” representatives of the “radical religious right.”

Larry Pratt, the Council for Inter-American Security and the War Against Immigrants

Fighting communism at home and abroad were not the only missions undertaken by the Council for Inter-American Security and their stalwart secretary, Larry Pratt. With the collapse of the degenerated workers’ states in the USSR and Eastern Europe, crowned by the annexation of the German Democratic Republic by West German Capital, new “enemies” appeared on the horizon — both in Europe and the United States.

By 1990, the “Culture Wars,” the assault on the basic rights of people of color, the organized proletariat, immigrants, women, queers and the left had come to replace the mythological significance of the “Red Menace” for the far-right. Mr. Pratt, this time in the guise of “defender” of “traditional family values,” and “America’s Godly heritage,” was equal to the task, “protecting” white Christians from a “flood” of “illegal” immigrants. Pratt would use his skills as a propagandist and his position as president of Gun Owners of America, to launch a new campaign — to make English the official language of the United States.

Under the auspices of CIS, Pratt was the president of a racist, anti-immigration outfit, English First. Officers of Pratt’s group are also leaders of the alarmist, United States Border Control (USBC). The Denver-based, North-South Institute (NSI) is a non-profit arm of the Council for Inter-American Security. NSI vice president and director, Lt. General Gordon Sumner, also a CIS director as we have seen, is an officer of USBC and NSI.[45]

A close ally of Pratt’s in this enterprise is Anthony Bouscaren. A CIS advisor along with Singlaub and Sumner, Bouscaren was a board member of WACL’s American branch. During the l960s, Bouscaren worked for Wycliffe Draper’s Pioneer Fund, a racist organization which has bankrolled pseudoscientific “research” which allegedly proves that blacks are genetically inferior to whites. The Pioneer Fund has been an instrumental force behind the scenes, funding neo-eugenicist research such as that of Phillipe Rushton, as well as many anti-immigration groups, including the “mainstream” Federation for American Immigration Reform, whose oxymoronic acronym is “FAIR.”[46]

During the 1970s, Bouscaren was a board member of the American-Chilean Council, a group which served as a public relations arm of the Pinochet death squad state. There Bouscaren worked with Ronald Docksai, the founder of the Council for Inter- American Security and L. Francis Bouchey, who would lead the organization during the 1980s.[47]

Well after his stint with the Pioneer Fund, Bouscaren published numerous articles in Roger Pearson’s Journal for Social, Political and Economic Studies — that is, after Pearson had been exposed as a Nazi by theWashington Post. [48]

Bouscaren signed the “Declaration of San Salvador,” as a proxy for John Singlaub. The declaration was the result of a right-wing conference held in San Salvador in 1985; it included many WACL members and focused on ways to involve civilians in anti-communist efforts. The document announced the formation of the Central American Anti-Communist Defense Accord, intended to create a combat group known as the Central American Civilian Military Alliance (CACMA).[49]

But CACMA was more than a WACL propaganda project. Drawing on the experiences of Guatemala’s notorious “Program of Assistance to Areas in Conflict” (PAAC), inspired by the CIA’s Phoenix Operation in Vietnam, PAAC’s “civic action” program included forced relocation of Mayan peasants into “model villages” and the creation of hated “civilian self-defense patrols.” WACL, CACMA and their CIA handlers viewed these operations as a means of generalizing and standardizing the “Guatemalan experience” throughout the region. In this near- genocidal enterprise against the Mayan people, the death squad regime was offered much assistance by Israeli as well as domestic “assets” within the U.S. Christian Right, especially from the clerical-fascist Reconstructionist wing of the movement.[50]

The counter-insurgency doctrine of “low-intensity conflict” (LIC), became a significant factor on the home front. Beginning in the early 1990s, veterans of CIA-Contra operations and their intellectual architects, began propagandizing for a systematic application of LIC methodology within the imperialist heartland itself. The “war on drugs” and the Immigration and Naturalization Service’s brutal border sweeps, detention and deportation of so-called “illegals,” many of whom are political refugees, are but the tip of the iceberg in this regard.

Echoing the xenophobic campaign already in full-swing within the reunified Germany, CIS and English First issued a paper, Creating a Hispanic America: Nation Within a Nation? This racist diatribe virtually equates bilingual education with “terrorism.” “Bilingual education has national security implications,” its authors inform us. Given CIS’s role in support of the CIA-Contra wars, their equation — Latino = Terrorist — certainly comes as no surprise. According to anti- racist researcher and activist, Michael Novick:

The paper compares the U.S. southwest to French-speaking Quebec, with its potential for separatism. It sees the Chicano and Spanish-speaking population as in themselves a threat to U.S. national security and unity.
The paper also indulges in more blatant racism. It describes the Indian ancestors of Latinos as “uncivilized barbaric squatters” with “a penchant for grotesque human sacrifices, cannibalism, and kidnapping women.” This is the ideology that guides English First leader Pratt in his fund- raising appeals for the English Only cause. In one letter soliciting potential donors, Pratt claimed, “many immigrants these days are encouraged not to learn English. They remain stuck in a linguistic…ghetto, living off welfare and costing working Americans billions of tax dollars.”[51]

Larry Pratt is a key leader of the reactionary U.S. Taxpayers Party (USTP). As touched upon briefly, Pratt is a national committee member of Howard Phillips’ outfit, as well as a national co-chairman of Patrick Buchanan’s campaign committee. A central plank of the USTP’s platform is the requirement that English become the “official” language of the United States. The USTP is opposed both to bilingual education and the use of multilingual ballots for U.S. elections.

But buried within the USTP’s 1992 platform is the bland phrase: the USTP “reject[s] the practice of bestowing U.S. citizenship on children born to illegal alien parents while in this country.” This is an attack on the 13th and 14th amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The 13th amendment abolished slavery, while the 14th amendment granted full citizenship rights to former slaves as well as to the children of non-citizen immigrants born in the U.S., legal or otherwise. In fact, Pratt and his cohorts within the “Patriot” movement seek to repeal these amendments as part of their drive to create a “Christian Republic.”

The origins of “Patriot” thinking regarding constitutional “revisions” of citizenship rights, is the little known but virulently racist, League of Pace Amendment Advocates. Daniel Johnson, the author of the so-called Pace Amendment is a far- rightist with close ties to many neo-Nazis, including Richard Barrett’s Mississippi-based Nationalist Movement and the Populist Party, founded by arch anti-Semite, Willis Carto, the leader of the Liberty Lobby.[52]

Mr. Pratt and his cohorts within the Council for Inter- American Security have much to answer for in their service to U.S. imperialism. Their role as active agents for murderous policies designed to bring the Central American people “in line” with the “rule of law” and the “civilized norms of the Western democracies,” have had very grave consequences indeed.
Their close collaboration with the FBI and the Salvadoran intelligence service unquestionably resulted in the deaths of hundreds of refugees after their forced deportation to El Salvador. According to the Political Asylum Project of the American Civil Liberties Union, out of 154 refugees deported in 1983 and 1984, 42 returnees were killed, seven were arrested, five were jailed, 47 were “disappeared” and an additional 43 others “disappeared” under violent circumstances. Certainly an admirable record Mr. Pratt and his “Patriot” companions can reminisce over during Bible study, perhaps.[53]


Far from being an innocent wrongly accused of anti-Semitism and racism, Larry Pratt is an individual committed to a world- view which begins and ends with global economic-political- cultural-military domination by U.S. imperialism; this is the context and ideology behind Patrick Buchanan’s allegiance to xenophobic “America First” nationalism.

Mr. Pratt’s 1990 book, Armed People Victorious , touted by the bourgeois press as a “passionate defense” of gun rights and the militia movement, is a volume inspired by the anti-communist death squads which operated so “efficiently” in Guatemala and the Philippines.

Pratt’s close working relationship with the Council for Inter-American Security and the World Anti-Communist League provided him both with the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to forge effective links among a host of individuals and organizations who actively sympathized with U.S.-sponsored terror and mass murder in Central America.

It should come as no surprise, least of all to a mendacious press that remained silent while imperialism implemented a policy of extermination , that fascists such as Pratt would recommend the creation of the domestic equivalent of Central American death squads in the United States to deal with troublesome enemies of today’s “Culture Wars.”

What is significant is not that individuals such as Mr. Pratt are “extremists” or the “enemies” of a supposedly “pluralist democracy.” Of far greater significance is that this “public-private partnership” among a host of reactionary organizations and the national security state, is the norm ; an enduring legacy of settler-colonialism grounded in white supremacist ideologies — and ideologues — who are hell-bent on maintaining imperialism’s global domination by any means necessary .


Principle directors, associates and research analysts involved with the Council for Inter-American Security. Compiled by the Interhemispheric Resource Center, Group Watch Reports, Box 4506, Albuquerque, NM 87196-4506. On PeaceNet, IRC’s Group Watch archive can be found on cdp:pra.reactionary; this excellent archive is maintained by Political Research Associates.
L. Francis Bouchey, president; Lt. Gen. Gordon Sumner, Jr. (USA-Ret.), chairman; Larry D. Pratt, secretary; Richard W. Powell, treasurer; Michael Connelly, general counsel. Directors: Robert W. Searby (Deputy Undersecretary for International Affairs, Department of Labor), Patrick J. Buchanan (former communications director for President Reagan); Michael Carricarte (Carricarte Corp); Col. Samuel T. Dickens (American Security Council); Ronald F. Docksai (president emeritus); Francis P. Graves (Republican National Committee); Lewis A. Tambs (U.S. Ambassador to Colombia, Costa Rica); Andy Messing (National Defense Council); Robert Emmet Moffit (former senior Legislative Assistant for Foreign Affairs). David Hirschmann, research director; Max Primorac, research fellow; Clemens Michel, research fellow; David Spencer, research fellow; Michael Caputo; John Lenczowski, consultant. James Whelan, president of the Inter-Security Educational Institute, co-publisher of West Watch. Michael Waller, West Watch editor and former research director. General John K. Singlaub (USA, Ret.); advisory board. Members of the first Committee of Santa Fe: L. Francis Bouchey, Roger W. Fontaine, David C. Jordan, Gordon Sumner, Lewis Tambs editor. Members of the second Committee of Santa Fe: L. Francis Bouchey, Roger Fontaine, David C. Jordan, Gordon Sumner. Inter-American Security Educational Institute: Fr. Enrique T. Rueda, project director.

Notes and sources
[1] see in particular: Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media , New York, Pantheon Books, 1988; Noam Chomsky, Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies , Boston, South End Press, 1989; Martin A. Lee and Norman Solomon, Unreliable Sources: A Guide to Detecting Bias in the Media , New York, Lyle Stuart, 1990; see, in particular, chapters 10-12
[2] Ross Gelbspan, Break-ins, Death Threats and the FBI: The Covert War Against the Central America Movement , Boston, South End Press, 1991; for background on COINTELPRO see: Ward Churchill and Jim Vander Wall, Agents of Repression: The FBI’s Secret Wars Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement , Boston, South End Press, 1990
[3] Gelbspan, op. cit., pp. 76-77. Currently J. Michael Waller is a leading spokesperson for the Washington, D.C.-based, American Foreign Policy Council; a rightist think-tank.
[4] ibid., pp. 32-34
[5] cited in Chip Berlet, The FBI and Right-Wing Spy Networks , New York, Center for Constitutional Rights, 1991, p. 4
[6] Gelbspan, op. cit., pp. 124-125
[7] Holly Sklar, Washington’s War On Nicaragua , Boston, South End Press, 1988, p. 58
[8] Frederick Clarkson, “‘Privatizing’ the War,” Covert Action Information Bulletin , Washington, D.C., Number 22 (Fall 1984), p. 33
[9] Alan Crawford, Thunder On The Right: The “New Right” and the Politics of Resentment , New York, Pantheon Books, 1980, p. 197
[10] Sara Diamond, Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States , New York, The Guilford Press, 1995, pp. 348-349 Marvin Liebman, a reactionary leader of the “China Lobby” organized the American-Chilean Council with funds supplied by “private Chilean contributions which were transmitted to us by the Consejo Chileno Norteamericano.” According to Dr. Diamond, ACC founders included: Professor James D. Atkinson, Murray Baron, Professor A.T. Bouscaren, Ralph de Toledano, Lev Dobriansky, Ronald Docksai, Walter Judd, David Keene, Anthony Kubeck, Eugene Lyons, Stefan Possony, David Rowe. Ronald Docksai was the founder and first president of CIS.
[11] Sklar, op. cit., p. 58
[12] ibid.
[13] Interhemispheric Resource Center, _Group Watch Project: Council for Inter-American Security_, Albuquerque, 1991
[14] Nelson Blackstock, COINTELPRO: The FBI’s War On Political Freedom , New York, Pathfinder Press, 1988; Frank Donner, Protectors of Privilege: Red Squads and Police Repression in America , Berkeley, University of California Press, 1990
[15] Edward S. Herman and Gerry O’Sullivan, The “Terrorism” Industry: The Experts and Institutions That Shape Our View of Terror , New York, Pantheon Books, 1989, p. 100
[16] Diamond, op. cit., p. 46
[17] Herman and O’Sullivan, op. cit., p. 100
[18] Clarkson, op. cit., p. 33; Herman & O’Sullivan, op. cit., p. 93
[19] Louis Wolf and Frederick Clarkson, “Arnaud de Borchgrave Board’s Moon’s Ship,” Covert Action Information Bulletin , Washington, D.C., Number 24, Summer 1985, p. 35
[20] Clarkson, op. cit., p. 33
[21] Frederick Clarkson, “Moon’s Law: God Is Phasing Out Democracy,” Covert Action Information Bulletin , Washington, D.C., Number 27, Spring 1987, p. 40
[22] Kai Hermann, “Klaus Barbie: A Killer’s Career,” Covert Action Information Bulletin , Washington, D.C., Number 25, Winter 1986, p. 19
[23] Stewart Klepper, “The United States in El Salvador,” Covert Action Information Bulletin , Washington, D.C., Number 12, April 1981, p. 9
[24] Herman and O’Sullivan, op. cit., p. 96
[25] Scott Anderson and Jon Lee Anderson, Inside the League: The Shocking Expose of How Terrorists, Nazis and Latin American Death Squads Have Infiltrated the World Anti-Communist League , New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1986, p. 13
[26] Christopher Simpson, Blowback: The First Full Account of America’s Recruitment of Nazis, and Its Disastrous Effect On Our Domestic and Foreign Policy , New York, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988, p. 269
[27] Diamond, op. cit., p. 157
[28] Anderson & Anderson, op. cit., p. 93
[29] ibid., p. 98
[30] for background on “Gladio” and NATO’s “stay behind” network, see: Arthur E. Rowse, “Gladio: The Secret U.S. War to Subvert Italian Democracy,” Covert Action Quarterly , Washington, D.C., Number 49, Summer 1994 and, Anti-Fascist Action (AFA), “Staying Behind: NATO’s Terror Network,” Fighting Talk , London, Issue 11, May 1995
[31] Anderson & Anderson, op. cit., pp. 98-99 and Stuart Christie, Stefano Delle Chiaie, Portrait of a Black Terrorist , London, Anarchy Magazine/Refract Publications, 1984
[32] Anderson & Anderson, op. cit., pp. 71-81
[33] ibid., p. 138
[34] ibid., p. 147
[35] ibid., p. 177
[36] Sklar, op. cit., p. 83
[37] ibid., pp. 84-86; for Israel’s role in Central America see, Jane Hunter, Israeli Foreign Policy: South Africa and Central America , Boston, South End Press, 1987, pp. 95-181
[38] Ellen Ray, “Argentina Activates International Death Squads,” Covert Action Information Bulletin , Washington, D.C., Number 16, March 1982, pp. 14-16 and, same issue, “Salvadoran Deserter Discloses Green Beret Torture Role,” pp. 17-18
[39] Sklar, op. cit., pp. 238-239
[40] Anderson & Anderson, op. cit., p. 102
[41] ibid., p. 92
[42] ibid. pp. 150-155
[43] Herman & O’Sullivan, op. cit., p. 69 Supporting counter- revolutionary terror was a very profitable enterprise indeed. GeoMilitech, founded by Singlaub and his partner, Barbara Studley, procured $5.3 million in weapons which were transferred to Contra leader, Adolfo Calero, in June 1985; a cozy relationship all around.
[44] Dele Olojede, “D.C. think tank was an apartheid tool,” San Francisco Examiner , Sunday, July 16, 1995, p. C-7; for background on the International Freedom Foundation see, David Ivon, “Touting for South Africa: International Freedom Foundation,” Covert Action Information Bulletin , Washington, D.C., Number 31, Winter 1989, pp. 62-64
[45] Russ Bellant, The Coors Connection: How Coors Family Philanthropy Undermines Democratic Pluralism , Cambridge, MA, Political Research Associates, 1990, p. 65
[46] Ruth Conniff, “The War on Aliens: The Right calls the shots,” The Progressive , Madison, WI, October 1993, p. 24
[47] Diamond, op. cit., p. 348
[48] Anderson & Anderson, op. cit., p. 153
[49] ibid., p. 273
[50] Hunter, op. cit., pp. 118-127 and, Sara Diamond, Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right , Boston, South End Press, 1989, pp. 164-168
[51] Michael Novick, White Lies, White Power: The Fight Against White Supremacy and Reactionary Violence , Monroe, Maine, Common Courage Press, 1995, pp. 188-189
[52] ibid., p. 267
[53] Gelbspan, op. cit., p. 219